This illustration is from Mark Twain's The Adventures of Tom Sawyer. It's from the part of the story where Tom and Joe Harper skip school and, with Huckleberry Finn, sneak away to Jackson's Island to spend a few days swimming, fishing, and generally goofing off. While on the island they see a bunch of boats take to the river, firing shots into the water and circling around. They know that this is how searchers attempt to get bodies to resurface and wonder with interest who has drowned. It gradually dawns on the boys that it is the three of them who are presumed dead. Further shenanigans ensue, including showing up at their own funeral.
This illustration is from The Horse And His Boy, chronologically the third book in the Chronicles of Narnia by C.S. Lewis. It takes place during the reign of Kings Peter and Edmund and Queens Susan and Lucy. Though they appear briefly in the book, the story is not actually about them but rather about a young boy named Shasta, a girl named Aravis, and two talking horses from Narnia, Bree and Hwin. The uncomfortable fellow in the illustration to the left is Rabadash, the crown prince of Calormen who wants to force Queen Susan to marry him. He attacks Narnia's neighbour and ally, Archenland, planning to seize the country then launch a raid from there into Narnia to kidnap Susan. Unfortunately for Rabadash's "romantic" endeavors, Archenland- with help from Narnia- fends off the Calormene invaders. To add to his humiliation, during the battle Rabadash's chain mail gets caught on a hook on a wall, pulling him off his horse and leaving him hanging helplessly until, his army defeated, he is taken into custody by King Lune of Archenland.
This illustration is from Thomas Hughes' 1857 novel, Tom Brown's Schooldays which is set in the English public school, Rugby, which Hughes attended himself as a boy. The scene in question is from a chapter entitled "The Fight". In it, Tom Brown agrees to fight Slogger Williams -another student- and almost of the other school boys turn out to watch the match.
This picture is of a scene from Jane Austen's 1817 novel Persuasion. This was her final completed novel, and was actually published posthumously. The scene in question takes place in Lyme, where Louisa Musgrove foolishly attempts to show off by jumping from a stone pier called the Cobb, telling Captain Wentworth to catch her. He moves to do so, but she jumps before he's ready and falls, hitting her head on the stones. Drama ensues.
Fun Fact: In 1867, Alfred Lord Tennyson visited Lyme Regis, and his friends proposed to show him where, during the 1685 rebellion against James II, the Duke of Monmouth landed, planning to raise an army to overthrow the king. Reportedly, Tennyson wasn't interested, saying instead: "Don't talk to me of the Duke of Monmouth; show me the exact spot where Louisa Musgrove fell." Incidentally, this is the exact spot where she fell:
This scene is a depiction of the death of Beowulf. When Beowulf is an old man, a dragon goes rampaging about the countryside, killing and burning. Beowulf heads out with a number of men to face the beast and, when his terrified men scarper off, challenges it alone. He kills the dragon, but is fatally wounded himself.