This is an illustration from Gulliver's Travels, the satirical 1726 book by Jonathan Swift. It depicts Gulliver catching sight of the flying island of Laputa, which is in the skies above the land of Balnibarbi. The king of Balnibarbi rules from the island, which is circular, 4.5 miles in diameter on an adamantine base, and apparently is supported by magnetic fields.
This is an illustration from L.M. Montgomery's 1908 book Anne of Green Gables. It is from a scene early in the novel, soon after the orphan Anne Shirley arrives to live with Marilla and Matthew Cuthbert. Mrs. Lynde, their nearest neighbour, comes to visit and is introduced to Anne. Lynde, who prides herself on being outspoken, remarks to Marilla right in front of Anne that the young girl is homely and that her hair is "as red as carrots". Anne has a temper to match her hair and has not been raised to exercise self-control, so she flies off the handle and has a few choice words of response to Mrs. Lynde, much to Marilla's chagrin.
This illustration is from Mark Twain's The Adventures of Tom Sawyer. It's from the part of the story where Tom and Joe Harper skip school and, with Huckleberry Finn, sneak away to Jackson's Island to spend a few days swimming, fishing, and generally goofing off. While on the island they see a bunch of boats take to the river, firing shots into the water and circling around. They know that this is how searchers attempt to get bodies to resurface and wonder with interest who has drowned. It gradually dawns on the boys that it is the three of them who are presumed dead. Further shenanigans ensue, including showing up at their own funeral.
This illustration is from The Horse And His Boy, chronologically the third book in the Chronicles of Narnia by C.S. Lewis. It takes place during the reign of Kings Peter and Edmund and Queens Susan and Lucy. Though they appear briefly in the book, the story is not actually about them but rather about a young boy named Shasta, a girl named Aravis, and two talking horses from Narnia, Bree and Hwin. The uncomfortable fellow in the illustration to the left is Rabadash, the crown prince of Calormen who wants to force Queen Susan to marry him. He attacks Narnia's neighbour and ally, Archenland, planning to seize the country then launch a raid from there into Narnia to kidnap Susan. Unfortunately for Rabadash's "romantic" endeavors, Archenland- with help from Narnia- fends off the Calormene invaders. To add to his humiliation, during the battle Rabadash's chain mail gets caught on a hook on a wall, pulling him off his horse and leaving him hanging helplessly until, his army defeated, he is taken into custody by King Lune of Archenland.
This illustration is from Thomas Hughes' 1857 novel, Tom Brown's Schooldays which is set in the English public school, Rugby, which Hughes attended himself as a boy. The scene in question is from a chapter entitled "The Fight". In it, Tom Brown agrees to fight Slogger Williams -another student- and almost of the other school boys turn out to watch the match.